Global Composites Development Overview
Composite material refers to a material composed of two or more different substances combined in different ways. It can exert the advantages of various materials, overcome the defects of single materials, and expand the application range of materials. Due to its light weight, high strength, convenient processing, excellent elasticity, chemical corrosion resistance and weather resistance, composite materials have gradually replaced wood and metal alloys, and are widely used in aviation, automobiles, electrical and electronic, construction, fitness equipment, etc. The field has been rapidly developed in recent years.
With the development of science and technology, resin and glass fiber continue to advance in technology, and the manufacturing capacity of manufacturers has generally improved, making the price cost of glass fiber reinforced composite materials accepted by many industries, but the strength of glass fiber reinforced composite materials is not enough. Competing with metal. Therefore, carbon fiber, boron fiber and other reinforced composite materials have been successively introduced, making the polymer composite material family more complete, and has become an indispensable material for many industries. At present, the annual output of composite materials in the world has reached more than 5.5 million tons, with an annual output value of more than 130 billion US dollars. If the high-value products of military aviation in Europe and the United States are included, the output value will be even more alarming. From a global perspective, the world's composite materials production is mainly concentrated in Europe, America and East Asia. In recent years, the production and demand of composite materials in Europe and the United States have continued to grow, while Japan in Asia has developed slowly due to the economic downturn, but the market in China, especially in mainland China, has developed rapidly. According to PPG, the world's leading composites manufacturer, in 2000, the global share of composite materials in Europe was about 32%, and the annual output was about 2 million tons. At the same time, the average annual growth rate of US composite materials in the 1990s was about twice the growth rate of US GDP, reaching 4% to 6%. In 2000, the annual output of composite materials in the United States reached about 1.7 million tons. In particular, the rapid increase in composite materials for automobiles has made American cars re-emerge in the global market. The development of composite materials in Asia in recent years is closely related to the overall changes in the political economy, and the share of countries varies greatly. Overall, composite materials in Asia will continue to grow. Total production in 2000 was approximately 1.45 million tons, and total production is expected to reach 1.8 million tons in 2005.
From the application point of view, composite materials are mainly used in aviation, automobile and other industries in the United States and Europe. In 2000, the amount of composite materials used in automobile parts in the United States reached 148,000 tons, and the amount of automotive composite materials in Europe was estimated to reach 105,000 tons in 2003. In Japan, composite materials are mainly used for residential construction, such as sanitary equipment, etc. In 2000, the amount of such products reached 75,000 tons, and the amount used in automobiles and other fields was only 24,000 tons. However, from a global perspective, the automotive industry is the largest user of composite materials, and its future development potential is still huge. There are still many new technologies under development. For example, in order to reduce engine noise and increase the comfort of the car, efforts are being made to develop a vibration-damping steel plate with a thermoplastic resin adhered between two layers of cold-rolled plates; in order to meet the requirements of high-speed, supercharging and high-load development of the engine, the engine piston, Metal-based composite materials have begun to be used in connecting rods and bushings. In order to meet the lightweight requirements of automobiles, more and more new composite materials will be applied to the automotive industry. At the same time, with the increasing emphasis on environmental issues in recent years, the application of polymer composites to replace wood has been further promoted. For example, composite materials made from plant fibers and waste plastics have been used in large quantities in trays and crates in North America to replace wood products. Degradable composite materials have also become the focus of research and development at home and abroad.
In addition, nanotechnology has gradually attracted people's attention, and the research and development of nanocomposites has become a new hot spot. Nano-modified plastics can change the aggregation state and crystal morphology of plastics, so that they have new properties. While overcoming the contradiction between the rigidity and toughness of traditional materials, the comprehensive performance of materials is greatly improved.